Surrogacy – Types, Procedure and Best Doctors & Hospitals in India

Posted on January 23rd, 2020 by Ganesh Gopakumar



Surrogacy is the legal procedure of arranging a woman (surrogate mother) to bear the child of another couple or a man since the other woman cannot bear a child. It also happens when the man is not married but wants to have his own child. The man or couple becomes the father or parents of the child after birth. 

Why do people seek surrogacy?

A single man or a couple seek surrogacy due to various reasons.

  • Pregnancy is dangerous for the intended mother
  • Absence of uterus. Some women have their uterus surgically removed due to cancer or other reason.
  • The uterus is unsuitable for pregnancy. Some women have congenital or hereditary issues with their uterus which abstains from conceiving.
  • When pregnancy is medically impossible (male couples).

Types of surrogacy

Surrogacy is of two types depending on the egg (female gamete) used for the procedure. It is namely:

  • Traditional surrogacy
  • Gestational surrogacy

Traditional surrogacy

In this type of surrogacy, the surrogate mother gets conceived by the man’s sperm (male gamete). The surrogate mother carries the embryo and delivers the baby. In this case, the surrogate mother will also be the biological mother of the child as her egg was used. But it does not give her any right over the child as you will make a legal agreement prior to the procedure. 

Gestational surrogacy

In this scenario, the sperm from the male and egg from the female is taken. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is done using the gametes. The fused zygote is implanted onto the surrogate mother’s uterus. In this case, the surrogate mother has no genetic connection to the child. The mother whose egg was used will be the biological mother of the child.

In case, the female from the couple does not have egg suitable for fertilization or if the couple is a male couple, donated eggs are used. There are plenty of egg and sperm donors available nowadays. The sperm and the donated egg is fused using in vitro fertilization and implanted onto the uterus. The surrogate mother carries the baby and gives birth.


6 steps for surrogacy

Decide whether surrogacy is the right option

Surrogacy is a long and emotional journey for both parties and you need to make up the mind whether it’s the right thing to do. If you go ahead and start the process there is no turning back. The couples who are gonna do surrogacy should be well aware of the laws and do a detailed study about the pros and cons. You can even talk to your doctors or professionals who have experience doing the procedure. 

Prepare for surrogacy

Once you have made up your mind to do the procedure, you and your partner should prepare for it. You will need to take care and give proper medical care to the surrogate mother just like you do for yourself. There are surrogacy agencies that would do all the work for you including finding the surrogate mother, getting the legal proceedings done and even the medical care and you just have to pay. But it is better to have a moral and emotional attachment to the surrogate mother because her deeds and thoughts can influence the baby growing inside her. 

Finding the surrogate mother

This is one of the most important steps in the whole process since she would be the one carrying your baby for the next few months. If you have a hard time finding a match, you can always approach an agency. They can easily find a surrogate mother according to your requirements. If you are a person who gives importance to race, religion, personality, or sexual orientation, then approaching the agency is considered better. 

After getting a match as you wanted, you can get to know the other person over the phone or in person. This is extremely important as you will need to go hand in hand with her for almost a year. Get to know her and decide whether you will be able to cooperate with her without any issues. 

Get legal side cleared

After successfully finding a surrogate mother, you will need to make a legal contract drafted. Both parties should have their own lawyers and each person’s conditions should be mentioned in the contract. The lawyers finally review the contract and both parties will have to sign in it. After the contract is complete other medical steps can be started. 

Fertilization & embryo transfer

This process usually happens in a fertility clinic. If you have opted for traditional surrogacy, you can fertilize your sperm with the surrogate mother’s egg by in vitro fertilization. If gestational surrogacy is the option, the sperm donor’s sperm is used.

If you have opted for gestational surrogacy, you can either use your partner’s egg or an egg donor for fertilization. The fertilization is done and the embryo is implanted on to the surrogate uterus.

Once the embryo has been successfully planted and the pregnancy is confirmed, the surrogate receives the payment as mentioned in the contract. She will also receive a monthly allowance or any other benefits given on the contract. You can also give the surrogate your personal attention and any other extra care as you please since it’s your baby growing inside her. The surrogate keeps going to the hospital for check-ups and care just like a normal pregnant lady would.

Receive your baby 

Usually, the couples or the man is present at the time of the delivery. After receiving the baby everybody can return home after clearing anything abided by the contract if any exists. You can keep in touch with the surrogate if you wish to. 

Surrogacy for foreigners in India

Initially, there were no restrictions for foreigners doing surrogacy in India. But by the surrogacy regulation bill of 2016 everything has changed. The law abstains foreigners and non-residents from having surrogacy in India.

Pros of surrogacy

  • It completes families
  • Allows genetic connection with the child (gestational surrogacy)
  • It is more likely to be successful

Cons of surrogacy

  • It can be complicated
  • The costs can be significantly high
  • It requires you to let go of some control

Cost of surrogacy

The cost totally depends upon the way in which you obtain the surrogate mother, their demands, the legal contract, and the agency charges. In addition, comes all the cost of medical care and hospital charges. So the cost varies. 

Best doctors in India for surrogacy

  • Dr. Seema Jain
  • Dr. Bhavna Banga
  • Dr. Tanya Buckshee Rohatgi
  • Dr. Sowjanya Aggarwal
  • Dr. Amrinder Kaur Bajaj
  • Dr. Richa Singh
  • Dr. Shalini Chawla Khanna
  • Dr. Surveen Ghumman Sindhu. Dir

Best hospitals in India for surrogacy

  1. Max Healthcare
  2. Infertility India
  3. Dr. LH Hiranandani Hospital 
  4. Bloom Fertility Center
  5. Virk Centre for Human Reproduction
  6. BLK Superspeciality Hospital
  7. Apollo Hospital for Assisted Reproduction
  8. Nova IVI Fertility
  9. Shivani Fertility and Mother Care
  10. Indira Infertility Clinic


How to choose the surrogate mother?

The surrogate mother should be chosen based on her previous obstetrical history and medical tests. It is important to choose a surrogate mother who is at the right age group ( 21- 32 years), she should have at least one child of her own. She should be free of any medical or psychological illness. In case she is married, her husband consent is needed.

What screening is done for surrogate mothers?

The following tests should be carried out for a surrogate mother before proceeding:

CBC/hb (Complete blood count/Hemoglobin)

Blood Group

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

HbsAg (Hepatitis B)

VDRL (Syphilis)

HCV (Hepatitis C)

FSH (CD2-4) (Follicle Stimulating Hormone), tests for ovarian reserve, must be measured on day 2-4 of menses.

LH (CD2-4) (Luteinizing hormone) Must be measured on day 2-4 of menses

TSH/T3/T4 (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone/Thyroid Function Test)


Pelvic ultrasound for Antral Follicle Count (Day 3-5 of menses )

What is the possibility of having twins?

With IVF, there is more probability of having twins, generally out of 5 successful IVF, one can be twins! However, in the case of 3 triplets growing, selective fetus reduction is done to avoid health issues in babies and surrogate mother.